The sixteen-member Utah Privatization Policy Board was created by the legislature to determine what services currently provided by the state can be privatized. State liquor stores are one of many state functions that the Board is examining.
Utah is one of 18 states, and two Maryland counties, that currently use a state run retail system, commonly called control states. The other 32 states issue licenses to private companies to sell liquor. Four control states (Washington, Virginia, North Carolina and Utah) are currently considering privatization. See Susan Johnson’s blog for a terrific discussion of the Washington initiative process. Utah also controls the wholesale market for liquor, which is not under discussion for privatization.
The debate thus far has centered on the economics of privatization and the level of state control exercised over liquor sales. There seems to be consensus that privatization will occur only if shown to be both profitable and to allow for sufficient state control.
From an economic perspective, state liquor stores are one of the few profitable government agencies in Utah. Estimates indicate that state liquor stores sold $269 million dollars worth of product in 2009, yielding $59 million in profit and $41 million in tax receipts, with $27 million going to the school lunch program. Information gathered by the Board so far indicates that privatization could result in $21 million dollars in annual savings from lowered payroll, operational and liability costs. The potential cost savings are more than offset by last year’s profit levels, however, which exceeded the potential annual savings by $38 million. It is not clear that tax receipts would remain consistent either. Both Montana and Maine, two states that recently privatized, have reported a drop in sales (and thus tax receipts) due to increased prices. It is not clear whether a privatization of Utah liquor stores would be likely to result in increased prices. Although privatization could lead to a decrease in revenues for the state from profits and tax receipts, privatization would bring in new streams of revenue, such as real estate taxes on liquor store properties, which are currently exempt. The state would also realize one-time gains from selling the current liquor store businesses and property. The Privatization Policy Board will need to consider whether these revenue streams would be sufficient to replace any lost revenues associated with lost profits and tax receipts.
With regard to control, the primary question is how to balance free-market principles with moral regulations. Many supporters of privatization equate state-run liquor stores to socialism. Opponents question whether a loosening of state control would result in increases in impaired driving and alcohol consumption, particularly by minors. One Board member, Senator Howard Stephenson, Republican from Draper, has indicated that liquor stores lend themselves to privatization, but that all of the current controls should remain in place. It is unclear whether business would be able to operate profitably if the state maintains current restrictions on advertising, locations, hours and days of operation. Further, as long as the state keeps its monopoly on wholesale liquor distribution, the state would maintain control over the brands offered and any volume discounts negotiated, which could limit the ability of retailers to compete based on selection and price. It is unclear what effect, if any, consumers would experience other than new names on the liquor stores.
Stoel Rives will be monitoring the privatization debate in Utah. We will post an update after the next Board meeting, expected to be held in late September.